Violence Against Female Health Professionals in South Asia

  • Bilal, A., et al., ‘A Qualitative Inquiry of Causes and Consequences of Workplace Violence Towards Female Nurses of Pakistan’, Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan, Vol. 22, No 2, 2015, pp43-58
  • A qualitative study that collected data from workplace interviews with nurses in Pakistan over a period of 17 months to investigate the causes and consequences Pakistani Nurses face and also the effects of workplace violence on their performance.

    1. Khan, A.J, et al., ‘Interpersonal Verbal and Physical Abuse against Female Nurses and Doctors in Karachi, Pakistan’, International Journal of Nursing Education, Vol 7, No 2, 2015, pp290-295

    This study interviewed married Nurses and Doctors working in Karachi, Pakistan about the kinds of abuse they experienced to differentiate between the prevalence of verbal abuse and the prevalence of physical abuse. The Nurses and Doctors were also asked about the reactions to the abuse and determined that most frequent responses were to either fight back or to stay silent during and about the altercation

    1. Malik, R.K, & Shahzad, A., ‘Workplace Violence: An Extensive Issue For Nurses In Pakistan-: A Qualitative Investigation’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol 29, No 11, 2014, pp 2021-2034

    This investigation examined violence that Nurses in Pakistan experience in their workplaces and the detrimental effects that these incidents resulted in and how their performance was affected.

    1. Kaur, A., & Kaur, R., ‘Prevalence of Violence towards Staff Nurses and their Knowledge and Utilization of Safety Resources’, Asian Journal Nursing Education and Research, Vol 5, No 1, 2015, pp 124-127

    This study interviewed Nurses at a particular hospital in Punjab, India, about the violence they had experienced and how prevalent it was. They also asked and analysed how much the Nurses knew of the safety resources available to them in the event of a violent altercation.

    1. Imran, N., et al., ‘Aggression, and Violence Towards Medical Doctors and Nurses in a Public Health Care Facility in Lahore, Pakistan: A Preliminary Investigation’, Khyber Medical University Journal, Vol 5, No 4, 2013, pp 179-184

    This investigation set out to determine the frequency, associated factors and consequences of violence conducted against Doctors and Nurses in a particular healthcare facility in Lahore, Pakistan. The purpose of this was to use the results found to develop appropriate methods of intervention against this type of violence.

    1. Sharma, K.K, & Vasta, M., ‘Domestic Violence against Nurses by their Marital Partners: A Facility-based Study at a Tertiary Care Hospital’, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Vol 36, No 3, 2011, pp 222-227

    This study examined the prevalence of domestic abuse that Nurses, specifically, suffer at the hands of their marital partner and the effects this violence has on their physical and mental health and their performance in the workplace.


    Violence Against the Women in Sex Work (Prostitution)

  • Hodge, David R. “Sexual Trafficking in the United States: A Domestic Problem with
  • Transnational Dimensions.” Social Work, vol. 53, no. 2, 2008, pp. 143–152.

    – This article talks about sex trafficking in the United States and how it is a transnational issue because some traffickers recruit and transport women from around the world into the prostitution in the United States.  The article discusses some legislation as well.

    1. Elizabeth Bernstein, What’s Wrong with Prostitution? What’s Right with Sex Work?

    Comparing Markets in Female Sexual Labor, 10 Hastings Women’s L. R. 91

    – This article talks about the American feminist lens and how it views prostitution.  It’s discussion will show me how/how not to talk about transnational views on prostitution.

    1. Kotrla, Kimberly. “Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States.” Social Work,

    vol. 55, no. 2, 2010, pp. 181–187.

    – A lot of America’s youth is targeted for the prostitution industry. This article discusses who that population may be.  Possibly how to stop or help stop this kind of child exploitation.

    1. Norma Jean Almodovar, For Their Own Good: The Results of the Prostitution Laws as

    Enforced by Cops, Politician and Judges, 10 Hastings Women’s L. R. 119 (1999).

    – This article shows me that even though laws are set in place, authorities still take advantage of women.

    1. Pinto, Susan, Anita Scandia, and Paul Wilson. “Prostitution Laws in Australia.” Trends &

    Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice (n.d.): n. pag. AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF


    – This article will explain the legality of why prostitution legislation is not uniform in this country.

    1. Sullivan, Barbara. “When (Some) Prostitution Is Legal: The Impact of Law Reform on

    Sex Work in Australia.” Journal of Law and Society, vol. 37, no. 1, 2010, pp. 85

    – In Australia, prostitution is regulated differently than other countries because some states, it is legal and regulated and others it is legal and not regulated. In Queensland, brothels are legal if their owners are licensed and in New South Wales, prostitution is decriminalized. I want to know what are these laws doing to protect these women?

    1. “US Federal and State Prostitution Laws and Related Punishments – Legal Prostitution” ProConorg Headlines. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2016.

    1. “US Federal and State Prostitution Laws and Related Punishments – Legal Prostitution” ProConorg Headlines. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2016.

    – 7 & 8, these websites give me direct access to the laws and punishments Americans must face when in the prostitution industry because it is illegal in the United States except for Nevada.

    VAW in Mexico

  • Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “Should I Hire a P.I. to Investigate a Relative’s Boyfriend?” The New York Times. The New York Times, 09 July 2016. Web. 28 Sept. 2016.
  • The facts and opinions of saving the person you love from domestic relationship. Ways one can ease on in to help that person who is in very serious denial. Brings upon laws and right women may not know they have.

    1. “Can I Stay Friends with My Abusive Husband.” New York Times. KWAME ANTHONY APPIAH, 27 July 2016. Web

    Moving forward from a domestic relationship without keeping in contact with that spouse. Some important facts about how it is just a cycle one likes to repeat without notice. Taking advantage of domestic groups and centers to overcome.

    1. “The Deadly Mix of Guns and Domestic Violence.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 June 2016. Web.

    Government officials and authorities have brought upon series of reason of why domestic violence has took a complete toll for the worse. The death of these women, but most important the way they are killed with weapons.

    1. Youtube. 2013, April 1. Domestic Violence Living in Fear.

    Reasons why women choose to simply live in fear, rather than make a change in there life, studies that show how women feel it is okay to be brutally beaten and live in fear of their partner

    1. Solomon, P. L. (2016). Factors associated with family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders. Psychiatry Research, 244171-178. Doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.07.026

    A series of disorders women are sickened with because of the life they currently live or simply just got out off. Researchers show how many women are truly impacted with these disorders every year

    1. Orozco, A. E., Nievar, M. A., & Middlemiss, W. (2012). Domestic Violence in Mexico: Perspectives of Mexican Counselors. Journal Of Comparative Family Studies, 43(5), 751-772.

    Studies on how the domestic violence in Mexico has taken a huge toll. Family studies along with examples of why women feel it is okay to stay in that state of living.

    1. Telesur English. YouTube. 2015,November,5. Interviews From Mexico: Women Shelters,

    Interviews on specific women shelters that are provided in some parts of Mexico, Women who have overcome living the domestic life and have grown as a person with the help of these centers.

    1. Ted Talks. YouTube. 2013, January. 2015. Why Domestic Violence Victims Don’t leave.

    Ted Talk bringing upon reasons why some women fail to see the truth behind their abusive relationships. Some facts and statistics brought up, along with personal information from the speaker.

    VAW: Honor Killings

  • Perry, J. (2016, July 19). Pakistan ‘honor’ killing suspect charged with state crime. Retrieved September 28, 2016, from
  • This news story, posted by CNN, is one example of a recent honor killing- that of social media star Qandeel Baloch. This murder sparked outrage throughout the social media platforms and sparked some discussion about what was being done to discourage this from happening again and again.

    1. Ullah, Z. (2016, September 4). Pakistan ‘honor killing’: UK woman raped before death. Retrieved September 28, 2016, from

    This is another news story, which covers both the topics of rape in South Asia, as well as the topic of honor killings.

    1. Sharma, B. (2016, September 4). 11-Month-Old Baby Raped For Two Hours In Delhi. Retrieved September 28, 2016, from

    This is an article about an ongoing situation in India where a disgusting man found an 11-month-old baby raped and dumped on the side. This article is so disheartening and upsetting, I cannot believe that this could happen to a literal infant who can barely even walk. This article will be a key point that I bring up in my discussion about the rape culture that surrounds South Asian/Middle Eastern cultures.

    VAW with Disabilities

  • Mays, J. M. (2006). Feminist disability theory: Domestic violence against women with a disability.Disability & Society, 21(2), 147-158. doi:
  • This reading explores the perceptions of violence against women with disabilities. It discusses the way society views this issue compared to how they would view violence against women who are not disabled.  This article also sheds light on how one can intergrade feminism with disabled women who have experienced violence. This article also talks about domestic violence as the sub-topic and the theories included with this topic.

    1. Chenoweth, L. (1996). Violence and women with disabilities: Silence and paradox. Violence Against Women, 2(4), 391-411. Retrieved from

    This article focuses on the statistics and the views of women who have had experiences with violence because they are disabled. It offers a different point of view to the violence that one may not ever get unless they experience it themselves. It goes into detail of specific situations with women in Australia. This article showing a first person perspective really allows for insight on the reasons why women with disabilities who experience violence would stay shut about it.

    1. Martin, S. L., Ray, N., Sotres-Alvarez, D., Kupper, L. L., Moracco, K. E., Dickens, P. A., . . . Gizlice, Z. (2006). Physical and sexual assault of women with disabilities.Violence Against Women, 12(9), 823-837.

    This article is an experiment to learn the statistics of women who are disabled and their experience with violence in a more detailed manner. This article expresses the many different types of violence woman who are disabled may encounter; focusing on sexual abuse which is a different kind of violence that people may not think about when it comes to disabled women. This article opens the reader’s eyes by offering raw data and having specific comparative situations that women with disabilities may find themselves in.


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